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Citation Helper - MLA, APA, Chicago, & NoodleTools

This guide includes information about citing your sources, including MLA, APA and Chicago / Turabian citation styles.

In-Text Citations - Chicago (Turabian) Style

Notes-Bibliography Style
Every time you refer to one of your sources, you want to include a numbered footnote that contains all the information about that source (author, title, publication info, and page number). Notes will be listed at the bottom of the page as footnotes, or at the end of your paper as endnotes

According to one scholar, "The railroads had made Chicago the most important meeting place between East and West." 4

Your footnote or endnote will look like this:

4. William Cronon, Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West (New York: W.W. Norton, 1991), 92-93.

If you cite the same text again, you can shorten the subsequent note.

8. Cronon, Nature's Metropolis, 383.

You will also create a complete list of your sources at the end of your paper in a bibliography.

Cronon, William, Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. New York: W.W. Norton, 1991. 

Chicago / Turabian Citation Resources

The version of the Chicago style used on campus and summarized here is the one modified by Kate Turabian and known as the Notes-Bibliography style. This book is the foundation for Chicago (Turabian) Style. If you have a question that isn't answered by this guide, check in The Manual for Writers. You can ask for it at the Reference Desk.

Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 7th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.