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Citation Helper - MLA, APA, Chicago, & NoodleTools

This guide includes information about citing your sources, including MLA, APA and Chicago / Turabian citation styles.

APA Manual

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to APA style (7th ed.). (2020). Washington: American Psychological Association.

In this seventh edition, the editors finally conceded to good sense to recommend only one space after punctuation at the end of a sentence, a stance that took academic Twitter by storm. But there are more significant updates to the previous edition (2010) that make scholarly communication clearer and more effective. (from Booklist, February 1, 2020)

This handbook is currently on order. This status will change when it arrives. 

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2010). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 

This book is the foundation for APA Style. If you have a question that isn't answered by this guide, check in the Handbook. Ask for it at the Help Desk - 808 PUB.

 cover of ALA publications manual

APA Web Site

Download the Handouts

APA Style - Print Sources



One author

(p. 248)

Browne, S. (2004). Buddha's dogs. New York, NY:  Four Way Books.

Two to five authors

(p. 248)

Beck, C.A.J., & Sales, B.D. (2001). Family mediation: Facts, myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

No author or editor

(p. 249)

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Anthology or compilation (an edited book)

(p. 249)

Benson, S. G. (Ed.). (2003). Hispanic American almanac: A reference work on Hispanics in the United States. Detroit, MI: Gale Research.

Two editors

(p. 249)

Larson, G. S., & Pepper, G. (Eds.). (1998). How to read a book (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Sage.

Work in an anthology

(p. 252)

Adams, J. (1996). Interracial marriage cannot be treated identically to same-race marriage. In B. Szumksi (Ed.), Interracial America: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 216-219). San Diego, CA: Greenhaven.

Encyclopedia article

(p. 254)

Kuehl, W. F.  (2005). Peace. In Encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 21, pp. 263-266). Danbury, CT: Scholastic Library Publishing.



Magazine articles

(p. 240)

(Do not abbreviate months.)

(The first article below is from a weekly magazine; the second is from a monthly magazine.)

Silver, M. (1997, June 16). Would you care for a V or an S with your PG? U.S. News & World Report, 122, 59.

Wright, K. (2003, March). The first earthlings. Discover, 24, 24-25.

Journal article with continuous paging

(p. 240)


(Continuous pagination means that pages are numbered continuously throughout each annual volume; if the first issue ends on page 174, the first page of the second issue will be 175. This example is from the 19th issue of volume 294.)

Cnattingius, S., Torrang, A., Ekbom, A., Granath, F., Petersson, G., & Lambe, M. (2005). Pregnancy characteristics and maternal risk of breast cancer.  JAMA, 294, 2474-2480.

Journal article with issues paged separately

(p. 240)

(Each issue begins on page 1. This example is from the 4th issue of volume 13.)

Ortiz, B. (1989). Mount Diablo as myth and reality: An Indian history convoluted. The American Indian Quarterly, 13(4), 457-65.

Encyclopedia article

(p. 254)

Kuehl, W. F.  (2005). Peace. In Encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 21, pp. 263-266). Danbury, CT: Scholastic Library Publishing.

Mohanty, J. N. (1998). Indian philosophy. In The new encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia. Chicago, IL: Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Newspaper article

(p. 243)

Mifflin, L. (1997, July 25).  TV ratings are mired in demand by industry. New York Times, p. A10.

Elections could change the game for contractors. (2008, September 15). Washington Post, p. D2.