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Citation Helper - MLA, APA, Chicago, & NoodleTools

This guide includes information about citing your sources, including MLA, APA and Chicago / Turabian citation styles.

APA Manual

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to APA style (7th ed.). (2020). Washington: American Psychological Association.

In this seventh edition, the editors finally conceded to good sense to recommend only one space after punctuation at the end of a sentence, a stance that took academic Twitter by storm. But there are more significant updates to the previous edition (2010) that make scholarly communication clearer and more effective. (from Booklist, February 1, 2020)

This handbook is currently on order. This status will change when it arrives. 

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2010). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 

This book is the foundation for APA Style. If you have a question that isn't answered by this guide, check in the Handbook. Ask for it at the Help Desk - 808 PUB.

 cover of ALA publications manual

APA Web Site

Download the Handouts

APA Style - Non-print Sources

Nonprint Source



(p. 214)


Personal communications, such as interviews, are not included in the reference list. They are cited only in the text; for example:

(Prince, L., personal communication, April 25, 2008)

Videotape or DVD

(p. 266)

Collins, M. (Writer/Producer), & Wolfinger, K. (Director). (2002). Bioterror. [Motion picture]. United States: WGBH Boston Video.