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Citation Helper - MLA, APA, Chicago, & NoodleTools

This guide includes information about citing your sources, including MLA, APA and Chicago / Turabian citation styles.

What does DOI mean?

Some database articles may include a DOI, a Digital Object Identifier, a unique number that is assigned to an entity that is available on a digital network. The DOI allows networks to keep track of objects such as electronic journal articles, even when the objects are moved from one Internet location to another.  
When an article contains a DOI, APA style allows for the inclusion of the DOI at the end of your citation. Here's an example of an APA citation that uses a DOI:

Wainberg, M. (2009, March 17). Criminalizing HIV transmission may be a mistake. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 180(6), 688-688. doi:10.1503/cmaj.090249

 

 

APA Style - Electronic Sources

Electronic Source

Example

Electronic version of a print book

(7.02.19)

 

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/html/index.asp

Online magazine article
(7.01.7)

Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology 39(6). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/

Journal article with DOI

(7.01.1)

Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2009). Dyslexia: A new synergy between education and cognitive neuroscience. Science, 325(5938), 280. doi:10.1126/science.1171999

 

Online newspaper article

(7.01.11)

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Entry in an online reference work
(7.02.29)

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.) The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/

Entry in an online reference work, no author
(7.02.30)

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online
     dictionary
(11th ed.). Retrieved from
     http://m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic.

Website

(7.11)

Greater Milford (CT) Area Healthy Community 2000, Task Force on Teen and Adolescent Issues. (n.d.). Who has time for a family meal? You do! Retrieved October 5, 2006, from http://www.familymealtime.org

GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-1997-10/

Whitelaw, K. (2009). Gotcha! Why online anonymity may be fading. Retrieved September 28, 2009, from http://npr.org/templates/stroy/story.php?storyid=112350627