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MHS Citation Helper - MLA, APA, Chicago, & NoodleTools

What does DOI mean?

Some database articles may include a DOI, a Digital Object Identifier, a unique number that is assigned to an entity that is available on a digital network. The DOI allows networks to keep track of objects such as electronic journal articles, even when the objects are moved from one Internet location to another.  
When an article contains a DOI, APA style allows for the inclusion of the DOI at the end of your citation. Here's an example of an APA citation that uses a DOI:

Wainberg, M. (2009, March 17). Criminalizing HIV transmission may be a mistake. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 180(6), 688-688. doi:10.1503/cmaj.090249



APA Style - Electronic Sources

Electronic Source


Electronic version of a print book



Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from

Online magazine article

Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology 39(6). Retrieved from

Journal article with DOI


Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2009). Dyslexia: A new synergy between education and cognitive neuroscience. Science, 325(5938), 280. doi:10.1126/science.1171999


Online newspaper article


Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Entry in an online reference work

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.) The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from

Entry in an online reference work, no author

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online
(11th ed.). Retrieved from



Greater Milford (CT) Area Healthy Community 2000, Task Force on Teen and Adolescent Issues. (n.d.). Who has time for a family meal? You do! Retrieved October 5, 2006, from

GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from

Whitelaw, K. (2009). Gotcha! Why online anonymity may be fading. Retrieved September 28, 2009, from